Nosema ceranae


The “Nosema Twins” – Part 1

© Randy Oliver It appears that a new bully has moved into town, and we didn’t even realize it! Maybe now we can explain some of the nasty things that have been going on. As of a few months ago, I knew diddly squat about nosema. Sure, I bought Fumidil-B some twenty years ago when […]

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Nosema ceranae: Kiss of Death or Much Ado about Nothing?

Randy Oliver Once again I’m interrupting a series of articles to update beekeepers on breaking news that has practical applications in bee management. This time the information is about Nosema ceranae, and I felt that the readers of the Journal might benefit from an update on recent research results. Dr. Mariano Higes’ team (from the […]

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The Suck-a-Bee

This sleek sucker makes nosema sampling a breeze! And you can build it yourself for about $40. Randy Oliver [ ** Suck-a-Bee update: Dirt Devil makes a nearly identical, but more expensive, vac that operates with a 15v battery and has greater battery life. It may have enough power to avoid the external power supply. […]

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Nosema Drench Treatment Trial

A test of the “drench” method of nosema treatment In previous articles in this journal, I’ve summarized what we know about Nosema ceranae, its pathogenicity, detection, and treatment. I wondered whether N. ceranae would prove to be as virulent in North America as it appeared to be in Spain. There were also a number of […]

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Nosema Ceranae: Additional Reports and Ramblings

Allow me to swap hats, and now speak to you as a beekeeper. As I was writing this article, I was asked similar questions by a number of beekeepers. Here they are, with answers to the best of my knowledge: Q: My bees tested at 2 x 106 spores per bee this summer—is that serious? […]

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Nosema ceranae—not your father’s nosema!

by Randy Oliver Most beekeepers are aware that a new form of nosema has established itself in North America (and throughout the world). Amazingly, Nosema ceranae was able to spread worldwide without anyone even noticing until recently—it has been in the U.S. since at least 1995, but wasn’t reported until 2007! Since that time, we […]

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Protocol for rapid preparation of nosema spore samples

by Randy Oliver Updates 4/13/09 Make sure that any sample contains enough bees–35-50 appears to be the minimum for any sort of accuracy. 100 would be better, especially at lower infestation rates. House bees generally do not exhibit spores unless the colony is in the last stages of collapse. A hemacytomer is unnecessary unless you […]

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Field of View Count Correlation

Report to the California State Beekeepers Association by Randy Oliver 2008 Determination of “spore count” Nosema infection level is reported in a standardized “spore count” of “average number of spores per bee,” generally given in millions (1 million = 1 x 106). The “standard method” of Cantwell (1970) involves the use of a hemacytometer. However, […]

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Field Trial of Several Nosema Treatments

Progress Report by Randy Oliver 2008 Introduction With the discovery of Nosema ceranae, and due to reports that the standard treatment with fumagillin may not provide adequate control, I ran a long-term trialhof various treatments, and methods of application, with nosema infected colonies. I continued to run the trial beyond the expected effects of treatment […]

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The “Nosema Twins” Part 1

Nosema ceranae update The debate continues as to how deadly N. ceranae is. I’ve been corresponding with Antonio Pajuelo (CONSULTORES APÍCOLAS http://www.pajuelo.info/). He notes that in Spain there are citations of collapses of colonies in autumn and winter attributed to lack of fall pollen back at least to 1807. Pajuelo first noticed problems in 2000, […]

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The “Nosema Twins” – Part 2 Detection & Microscopy

© Randy Oliver Last fall, getting wind of Nosema ceranae, I carefully collected a few bees from a dozen or so hives from each yard, and sent the whole pooled sample of 500 bees off to a lab for a nosema spore count. The results came back at less than a million spores per bee, […]

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The “Nosema Twins” – Part 3 Sampling

© Randy Oliver My previous articles about Nosema ceranae may have grabbed your attention. Let me be clear that I’m not trying to be alarmist—not all operations have problems with nosema. In fact, I’ve got some colonies doing poorly despite having decent nutrition, low mite levels, low nosema counts, and (as far as I know) […]

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The “Nosema Twins” – Part 4 Treatment

© Randy Oliver Beekeepers had a hard enough time dealing with Nosema apis. What can we do about N. ceranae? Unfortunately, we are currently not very far up the learning curve. The best we can do is to take what we know about N. apis prevention and treatment, and modify it to hold our own […]

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The “Nosema Twins” – Part 5 Alternative Treatments

© Randy Oliver The more I learn about CCD and other colony maladies, the more I am impressed by the fact that honey bees are currently dealing with a complex of novel parasites, pathogens, vectors, stresses, and immunosuppressants. The nutrition/parasite/virus complex appears to me to be where the main action is, and viruses seem to […]

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Sick Bees – Part 13: Simple Microscopy of Nosema for beekeepers

CONTENTS Equipment Needed Taking Bee Samples Processing the Samples Bringing the Spores into Focus Spore Identification Counting the Spores Care and Feeding of your Microscope Coming Up Randy Oliver ScientificBeekeeping.com It is greatly surprising to me that with the great interest by beekeepers in Nosema ceranae, how few actually make the effort to monitor the […]

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