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Pesticide exposure pathways

Pesticide exposure pathwaysSorry for the low resolution of this snip of this Powerpoint slide that I created for a presentation.  I’ve color coded the ellipses and arrows.  Red is the pesticide active ingredient.  Blue is the initial mode of exposure.  Orange are the ages/temporal tasks of the bees involved.  Green are the contaminated foods or combs.

Note how colony organization is set up to avoid exposing the queen and brood to toxins (whether natural or manmade).  Note the special case (the pollen hogs at the lower right) in which newly emerged workers and drones get killed by planting dust.


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